Water security challenges refer to issues and concerns related to the availability, accessibility, and quality of water resources. These challenges can vary across regions and are influenced by factors such as population growth, climate change, pollution, and inadequate infrastructure. Understanding these challenges is essential for developing effective strategies to ensure water security. Although rapid expansion of the irrigated area has occurred over the last two decades, poor performance and low efficiency of water use are still prevalent (Dey et al., 2006). Sustainability of groundwater for irrigation in dry season rice is becoming a challenge because of over exploitation of groundwater for irrigation than recharge, increased area of boro rice cultivation, depletion of surrounding river water level, reduction of wetland areas—a source of groundwater recharging, below average rainfall and so on in the NW region of Bangladesh (Dey et al. 2017). High salinity level in the groundwater as well as surface water mainly in the month of December to March makes the irrigation system vulnerable in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Groundwater, which is the main source of drinking water in Bangladesh, is being over-exploited and depleted in many areas beyond natural replenishment of aquifers from rainfall and river flow (Dey et al. 2017). Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted and integrated approach that involves sustainable water management practices, improved infrastructure, policy development, and international cooperation. It is crucial to consider the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of water security to ensure a balanced and resilient approach to managing water resources.